Generally each action aiming at determining the current situation and attempting to predict future price developments can be called market analysis. In the former paragraph I wrote about two analysis trends – technical and fundamental analysis.
Technical analysis is divided into different market research methods, the most popular among them: are analysis of technical analysis indicators, Elliott wave analysis and Fibonacci numbers and more advanced such as fractal analysis, neural nets, Chaos theory, calculus of probability, and all others statistical and mathematical research.
We can also add Dow’s theory, Gann’s theory and others theories that use price and other data as sources of information.
Fundamental analysis is also a useful tool. All macroeconomic research is widely used. Fields such as indicators analysis (macro-economic indicators), financial reports analysis, etc. are used in fundamental analysis.
Different trade theories such as Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), Interest Rate Parity ( IRP), a Model of Balance of Payments (BPM) or financial assets model are used to predict currency valuations.